Proposal summaries

These are research proposals that have been approved by the ALSPAC exec. The titles include a B number which identifies the proposal and the date on which the proposals received ALSPAC exec approval.

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B455 - The apgar score as a predictor of physiological measures - 25/01/2007

B number: 
B455
Principal applicant name: 
Dr David Odd (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
The apgar score as a predictor of physiological measures
Proposal summary: 

The aim of the project is to investigate the relationship between the composite Apgar score and its individual components.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B453 - Evaluating Childhood Obesity Interventions - 25/01/2007

B number: 
B453
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Leo Trasande (NYU Langone Medical Centre, USA)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Evaluating Childhood Obesity Interventions
Proposal summary: 

Obesity among American children has reached epidemic proportions. 34.8% of children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample were at risk for overweight (greater than 85%ile Body Mass Index, or BMI) or overweight (greater than 95%ile BMI) (37). Childhood obesity is an extremely strong predictor of adult obesity, poor cardiovascular health and a number of significant and lifelong health problems that manifest during childhood (38). Childhood obesity is thus extremely costly to society, reducing quality of life and burdening our health care system.

Though the epidemic of childhood obesity is widely recognized, the future consequences of overweight and at risk of overweight for the current generation of American children are not known. Preventing adult obesity by preventing or reversing childhood obesity may represent a major cost-effective strategy to improve present and future health in America, but no study has predicted future prevalence of obesity (and associated increases in cardiovascular and other morbidities) if additional efforts are not devoted to its prevention or reversal.

Aim 1 of this research proposal is therefore to apply data from longitudinal cohort studies on the tracking of obesity, the existing literature on the comorbidities associated with childhood obesity, and extant federal databases (NHANES, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the National Hospital Discharge Survey) to predict the health and economic consequences of obesity in present and future cohorts of American children. Markov processes will be developed to describe each of the transitional probabilities of obesity over the lifespan, and multi-variable sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation will also be employed to develop a range that most accurately describes the possible consequences of childhood obesity.

Childhood obesity at its most basic level represents an imbalance between dietary intake and physical activity. Poor diet and physical inactivity are the leading etiologic factors of childhood obesity in America. In its report Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance, the Institute of Medicine has identified a variety of promising approaches in childhood and adolescence to reducing morbidity of childhood obesity (39). Resources to combat childhood obesity are limited, and thus the most cost-effective interventions should be applied in order to reduce morbidity from childhood obesity, yet no study has systematically evaluated the relative cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce morbidity from childhood obesity.

In Aim 2 of this research proposal, I will use data from the Iowa Bone Development Study to quantify the potential impact of various changes in diet and physical activity on future risk of obesity. I will then apply a decision-analytic model that compares the scenario in which no intervention is applied with the scenario in which an intervention that reduces children's television viewing, increases physical activity or improves diet is applied across the appropriate age cohort(s). The goal will be to assess the potential cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit profile of effective interventions identified by the Cochrane Group (40) that could reduce morbidity from childhood obesity by reducing children's television viewing, increasing physical activity or improving diet.

Traditional pediatric disease prevention has focused on identification of individual risk factor-disease relationships, and development of effective interventions to reduce risk. By executing the proposed research plan, I will become expert in the application of mathematical modeling and economic analysis to the design and evaluation of evidence-based interventions against obesity and other chronic childhood diseases and in the effective translation of science into evidence-based prevention.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B452 - Cerebral visual function in ALSPAC children - development and abnormalities - 25/01/2007

B number: 
B452
Principal applicant name: 
Miss Cathy E M Williams (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Prof Andrew Whitelaw (University of Bristol, UK), Dr Eileen Birch (Retina Foundation of the Southwest, USA), Prof Alan Emond (University of Bristol, UK), Mr Richard Harrad (University of Bristol, UK), Prof Ian Gilchrist (University of Bristol, UK)
Title of project: 
Cerebral visual function in ALSPAC children - development and abnormalities
Proposal summary: 

AIMS

The development of simple visual acuity is most rapid in the first 1 - 3 years of life. However, the maturation of the neural pathways that refine this information and that relate visually acquired information to other systems on the brain (eg, cognitive processing, visuomotor skills including eye movements, systems of attention), in other words help one understand and react to what one sees, occurs in over a longer period and important changes are thought to occur in late childhood and teenage years.

Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is now the commonest cause of severe sight restriction or blindness in children in the UK1and other developed countries. Less severe manifestations of CVI are increasingly described in the literature, often correlating well with lesions seen on MRI2,3 and are recognised clinically as having a major impact on child's ability to achieve their potential and extensive resources may be needed to support affected children in school and at play4-6.

Several patient groups have been described as being likely to have abnormal cerebral visual function (for example individuals born prematurely with periventricular leucomalacia4, individuals with with cerebral palsy7, hydrocephalus8, autism9 , ADHD10,11, schizophrenia12,13) but little is known about the variability in cerebral visual functions in children without identifiable pathologies, or about the pathways that lead to cerebral visual abnormalities. We have collected some data relating to development of cerebral visual functions in the ALSPAC cohort. These data include:

* Accommodation (F7, TF3)

* Stereopsis (CiF, F7, F11, TF1, TF3)

* Eye Preference (CiF, F7, F11, TF3)

* Saccadic and pursuit eye movements (CiF, F7)

* Contour detection (F7 - in a subset, F11, TF1, TF3) 14,15

* Circular contour deformation (F11, TF1, TF3) 16

* Structured history items in questionnaire sent when cohort were aged 13 years. (Questionnaire TA at 13 yr) 17

The questions asked from the "structured history" covered topics such as difficulties finding objects on a crowded background, getting lost or losing things, problems judging doorways and steps and problems seeing objects pointed out in the distance. Many relate to part of the brain known as the "dorsal stream" which comprises neurones relaying information about "where" things or the individual, are. Difficulties with these tasks can be very disabling and have been observed in children with a variety of developmental or educational problems.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 25 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Cognitive Function, Vision
Primary keyword: 

B450 - Asthma and Swimming - 18/01/2007

B number: 
B450
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Jean Golding (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Prof John Henderson (University of Bristol, UK)
Title of project: 
Asthma and Swimming
Proposal summary: 

There is currently much discussion as to whether exposure to the chemicals used in swimming pools early in a child's life is responsible for the initiation of symptoms of asthma in susceptible children. The main evidence for this comes from Belgium, and there have not been studies in Britain to our knowledge. There is some anxiety at DfES concerning the validity of these results, particularly since it is government policy that all primary school children learn to swim as part of the current curriculum.

ALSPAC did not ask about swimming directly in early parental questionnaires, but did ask about activities with the child undertaken with the mother and with the father at various time points. Reports of swimming would occur as text.

In order to assess the feasibility of undertaking a study of swimming in ALSPAC we therefore propose coding the activities undertaken with the child over time. This would allow us then to undertake power calculations to ascertain the appropriateness of carrying out a detailed analysis of the ALSPAC asthma data in this regard.

To this end we have managed to obtain a promise of £3500 - which I anticipate will cover the costs of JG coding all the activities over the pre-school and possibly the primary school period, and the computing team adding the data to the SPSS built files. The funders are the Amateur Swimming Association and the Pool Water Treatment Group, with some help possibly from DfES.'

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 18 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 18 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B451 - Are sedentary behaviuors related to adiposity in 10 year old children - 16/01/2007

B number: 
B451
Principal applicant name: 
Angie Page (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Are sedentary behaviuors related to adiposity in 10 year old children?
Proposal summary: 

no outline received

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 16 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 16 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B444 - Genetic and environmental risk-factors for myopia in the ALSPAC study cohortLinked to B1169 - 09/01/2007

B number: 
B444
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Jez Guggenheim (University of Cardiff, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Miss Cathy E M Williams (University of Bristol, UK)
Title of project: 
Genetic and environmental risk-factors for myopia in the ALSPAC study cohort.(Linked to B1169)
Proposal summary: 

In Western countries, there are no cohorts of childhood refraction data large enough to provide the statistical power to detect subtle genetic effects (e.g. QTL controlling less than 5% of the variation in the trait phenotype). This study will provide complementary information to a moderately sized study (1400 children) in Asia, in which refraction data has been collected, and selected SNP genotyping is planned. This work will also provide preliminary data to inform a future genomewide association studies for refractive error in this cohort.

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 9 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 9 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B564 - The influence of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood behaviour and learning - 08/01/2007

B number: 
B564
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Kapil Sayal (University of Nottingham, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Dr Jon Heron (University of Bristol, UK), Prof Alan Emond (University of Bristol, UK), Prof Jean Golding (University of Bristol, UK)
Title of project: 
The influence of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood behaviour and learning
Proposal summary: 

Research Questions:

1. Is there an independent effect of maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy on childhood behavioural, mental health and learning outcomes?

2. Is there a dose-response relationship?

3. Do the patterns and timing of alcohol consumption during pregnancy influence outcomes?

4. What are the causal and mediating relationships in influencing these outcomes?

Background

There is robust evidence of an aetiological relationship between high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and adverse physical and neuropsychological childhood outcomes. When specific criteria are met, these have been best characterized at the extreme end as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (Sokol et al, 2003). However, this raises the question of whether there is a safe level of drinking during pregnancy or if lower levels of exposure are also independently associated with adverse outcomes. There are conflicting accounts as to whether there is a small independent effect from lower levels of exposure (Linnet et al, 2003; Sood et al, 2001). Policy recommendations have become more cautious in recent years, suggesting abstinence from alcohol throughout pregnancy. However, the extent to which these recommendations are based on evidence remains uncertain.

Previous studies addressing these questions have had methodological limitations such as the use of high-risk samples which do not readily generalise to the wider population, short periods of follow-up, limited measures of antecedent confounders (such as maternal mental health), and retrospectively collected data that risks recall bias relating to the exposure (Linnet et al, 2003). In contrast, the ALSPAC dataset is very well placed to overcome these methodological issues in a large representative epidemiological sample.

Our preliminary analyses focussed on the effects of occasional drinking during pregnancy (Sayal et al, 2007). This is the largest published study (n=9086) that investigates the effects of prenatal alcohol use on child mental health outcomes and the methodology and findings are of international relevance. After controlling for a range of prenatal and postnatal factors, we found that the consumption of less than one drink of alcohol per week during the first trimester was independently associated with clinically significant mental health problems in girls (assessed at three time points between the ages of 4-9 years using ratings from 2 different informants). We have also found that the consumption of four or more drinks in a day in the second or third trimesters was independently associated with higher total levels of mental health problems (especially hyperactivity and conduct problems) in girls at the age of 47 months and in both genders at 81 months (paper in preparation). The consumption of four or more drinks continued to carry risk for these outcomes in the absence of daily drinking. Based on these preliminary findings, we wish to investigate whether these associations and outcomes persist over time (till age 13) and generalise to other outcomes (such as child temperament, development, learning, and mood).

Key Measures

Exposure: Maternal (and paternal) use of alcohol during pregnancy.

Outcomes:

Pre-school: Temperament measures (using the Carey & EAS scales); SDQ at 47 months; development (using the Denver Developmental Screening Test - done at 18, 21, 30 months).

School age: child mental health (externalising and internalising problems as measured by the SDQ at later time points, parent and teacher DAWBAs, & Mood & Feelings Questionnaires); cognition and learning (IQ measures and school SEN information); and neuropsychological/attentional outcomes (such as the TEACH).

Confounder variables: The analyses will control for a range of pre-, ante-, and post- natal factors such as maternal and paternal pre- and post- pregnancy alcohol consumption; maternal smoking and drug use in pregnancy; gestational age; birth weight for gestational age; birth complications; child gender; family structure and maternal and paternal age, mental health, education, and socio-economic status;.

Analytical Approach: Following initial bivariable analyses, multivariable logistic regression analyses will assess the effect of prenatal alcohol use on child outcomes. As sample attrition may be related to both the exposure and outcome, response status at follow-up will be related to baseline variables. As there are repeated measures of outcomes, latent constructs will be developed approaches such as structural equation modelling will be used to explore overlapping predictor factors for dependent variables and to test for causal and mediating relationships. This will also quantify the role of other key risk factors, especially smoking during pregnancy.

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Keywords: 
ADHD, Antisocial Behaviour
Primary keyword: 

B448 - International growth reference for school-age children and adolescents - 08/01/2007

B number: 
B448
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Jorg Siekmann (German Research Centre for AI, Europe)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
International growth reference for school-age children and adolescents
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B447 - Markers of prenatal sex hormone exposure and their relations with atopy and asthma - 08/01/2007

B number: 
B447
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Seif Shaheen (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Markers of prenatal sex hormone exposure and their relations with atopy and asthma
Proposal summary: 

We will link the above variables to the data on atopic outcomes and confounders (and PSAI score) which we already have, and carry out appropriate multivariate analyses in boys and girls separately. We will examine relations of digit ratio to the other variables above, and to testosterone levels in pregnancy in the subset with these data. We will stratify by maternal atopic disease and parity (especially number of older brothers which has been linked to digit ratio and to atopy), and stratify the handedness analyses by family history of atypical handedness. We could also relate maternal handedness to atopic disease in the mothers. If we confirm novel associations with digit ratio we will write these results up first.

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 8 January, 2007
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B369 - Risk Evaluation of Commercial Seafood with a Focus on the Risk of Methal Mercury - 30/12/2006

B number: 
B369
Principal applicant name: 
M Bolger (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Risk Evaluation of Commercial Seafood with a Focus on the Risk of Methal Mercury.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Saturday, 30 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Saturday, 30 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Diet, Eating disorders, Mercury
Primary keyword: 

B351 - BDNF Genotyping internal transfer NOT grant - 30/12/2006

B number: 
B351
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Yin Yao (National Institute of Mental Health,Maryland, USA)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
BDNF Genotyping (internal transfer, NOT grant).
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Saturday, 30 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Saturday, 30 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Genetics
Primary keyword: 

B442 - EMPOWER proposal - 15/12/2006

B number: 
B442
Principal applicant name: 
N McIntosh (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
EMPOWER proposal
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 15 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 15 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B441 - Effects of early life exposure to particulates on respiratory health outcomes through childhood and adolescence ALSPAC birth cohort study - 15/12/2006

B number: 
B441
Principal applicant name: 
Dr John Gulliver (Imperial College London, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Effects of early life exposure to particulates on respiratory health outcomes through childhood and adolescence: ALSPAC birth cohort study
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 15 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 15 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B443 - The effects of physical activity during pregnancy on fat and fat distribution in infants - 14/12/2006

B number: 
B443
Principal applicant name: 
Mireille van Poppel (VU University Medical Centre of Amsterdam, Europe)
Co-applicants: 
Prof W van Mechelen (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Title of project: 
The effects of physical activity during pregnancy on fat and fat distribution in infants
Proposal summary: 

Background: It has been clear for some years now: overweight and obesity are a major problem for public health in developed and developing countries [WHO World Health Report 2002]. Changes in both physical activity levels and nutrition have contributed to this problem. These changes are partly due to changes in economic standards, culture and social norms, as well as to changes in our environment. Cars, computers, escalators, and remote controls have all made their entry in our lives in the past century. The discussion about whether and to what extent we can compensate and manage these changes, and what impact this would have on overweight and obesity prevalence, is ongoing. Changes in our environment have not been limited to the places where we live and work.

Because expectant mothers today are different from those who lived a century ago (for example they are generally fatter and less physically active during pregnancy [Kramer 2002]), the intrauterine environment has also changed over time. These changes in the intrauterine environment are reflected in the fact that birth weight increased between 1978-1996, with a corresponding drop in small-for-gestational age (SGA) babies and increase in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies [Kramer 2002].

The importance of birth weight for the development of chronic disease later in life was first recognised by Barker [1995]. His hypothesis was that SGA babies were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. Hence, the attention was at first predominantly on SGA babies. However, more recently, LGA babies have been found to be at risk as well. In addition to the fact that giving birth to an LGA baby is a risk for complications during childbirth [e.g. Oral 2001], these babies have disproportionately more fat in childhood. Hammami et al. [2001] have shown that body weight and length are the dominant predictors of body composition in LGA and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates. They also found that LGA neonates have significantly higher proportions of total body fat and bone mineral content, but lower lean body mass as a percent of body weight. In contrast, Hediger et al. did not find a surfeit of fatness in infants born LGA within the first years after birth [Hediger 1998], but found an increase in fatness at the triceps and subscapular sites at 3 years of age [Hediger 1999]. Rogers et al. [2006] found that an increased relative weight-for-height at birth was associated with increased fat mass. Based on these findings, it seems that prevention of LGA births could be important in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related health problems later in life.

Several researchers have shown that increased maternal body mass index (BMI) is partly responsible for the rise in proportion of LGA births over time [Kramer 2002; Surkan 2004], and it is consistently related to the risk of LGA births [Orskou 2003; Schaefer- Graf 2002 & 2003]. Other lifestyle factors reducing the risk of LGA births are smoking and caffeine intake during pregnancy [Orskou 2003]. Since levels of smoking are falling in most Western countries, this may also contribute to a higher number of LGA babies [Kramer 2002].

Maternal glucose tolerance is another strong determinant of LGA birth. Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) have a strongly increased risk of giving birth to a LGA baby [Schaefer-Graf 2002 & 2003]. Not only is their risk of an LGA birth higher, the consequences of LGA are more pronounced in babies whose mothers had GDM. Evidence suggests that the increase in fat mass in LGA babies [Hediger 1998; Hammami 2001] is larger in LGA babies following GDM pregnancies, than in LGA babies whose mothers had normal glucose tolerance [Hammami 2001; Vohr 1997 & 1999]. Moreover, Vohr et al. have shown that fat mass in LGA children whose mothers had GDM was higher than in LGA babies from 'control' women, even at 7 years of age [Vohr 1999]. In addition to this increased adiposity, they also found that LGA babies of GDM mothers also had higher blood pressure and higher levels of serum glucose at 4-7 years of age. Adverse effects of LGA births also include a higher risk for the development of insulin intolerance and obesity during childhood [Strauss 1997].

In relation to maternal physical activity, Alderman et al. [1998] have shown that moderate or vigorous physical activity for two hours per week or more in any month of pregnancy is associated with decreased risk of LGA birth, but has no significant effect on risk of SGA birth or length of gestation. They postulate that this effect may be due to beneficial effects on glucose tolerance. If so, physical activity may not only reduce the risk of LGA birth, but may also reduce the associated increase in adiposity. This effect may be more pronounced in babies born to GDM mothers. However, the role of physical activity during pregnancy on fat distribution in infancy has not been studied to date. Given the strong influence of physical activity on glucose metabolism, this relationship is very plausible.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 14 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 14 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B438 - Aerosol abuse - 08/12/2006

B number: 
B438
Principal applicant name: 
S Rogers (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Aerosol abuse
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 8 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 8 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B426 - Effects of metals on reproduction and children - 07/12/2006

B number: 
B426
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Patrick Case (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Effects of metals on reproduction and children
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 7 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 7 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B440 - Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in maternal and child health and health care in 2 populations Pelotas birth cohorts 198219932004 and ALSPAC - 01/12/2006

B number: 
B440
Principal applicant name: 
Alicia Matjasevich (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Prof Jean Golding (Not used 0, Not used 0), Prof Cesa Victora (Not used 0, Not used 0), Prof Jenny Donovan (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Title of project: 
Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in maternal and child health and health care in 2 populations: Pelotas birth cohorts (1982,1993,2004) and ALSPAC
Proposal summary: 

Aims of the project

General:

- describe maternal and child health and health care inequalities across socioeconomic groups in the Pelotas Birth Cohorts and ALSPAC populations.

Specific:

- identify and measure inequalities in maternal and child health and health care indicators

- compare inequalities in maternal and child health and health care indicators between the Pelotas Birth Cohorts and ALSPAC populations

- identify inequalities among racial/ethnic groups in the Pelotas Birth Cohort studies

- examine changes and trends in inequalities over time in the three Pelotas Birth Cohorts studies

- make recommendations on how to monitor and prevent inequalities

The general research question to be addressed is whether inequalities in maternal and child health and health care have similar magnitude and distribution among socioeconomic groups in ALSPAC and the Pelotas Birth Cohort studies, which belong to populations from high and middle-income countries respectively.

Specific questions include:

- Which are the best predictor variables for inequalities in each setting?

- Which health outcomes show the greatest variability among social groups?

- Is there evidence of racial/ethnic inequalities in the Pelotas Birth Cohort studies?

- Which are the main factors that generate maternal and child health inequalities?

- Is there evidence that inequalities are increasing over time in the Pelotas Birth Cohort studies?

- What can health services do to help reduce inequalities in each setting?

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 1 December, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 1 December, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B437 - Diet diaries at 17 - 29/11/2006

B number: 
B437
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Pauline Emmett (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Alison Stephen (Not used 0, Not used 0), Dr Kate Northstone (University of Bristol, UK), Dr Imogen Rogers (University of Brighton, Brighton), Prof George Davey Smith (University of Bristol, UK), Dr Susan Jebb (University of Cambridge, UK)
Title of project: 
Diet diaries at 17+
Proposal summary: 

Purpose

There is growing evidence of the role of specific dietary factors in cancer prevention.

In a large, contemporary group of young people (the ALSPAC cohort), now at the

cusp of adulthood, this study will identify a dietary pattern characterised by these

cancer-protective components and study the antecedent determinants of these

eating habits. This will include the role of socio-economic status, parental attitudes

and behaviours and specific genetic traits, primarily relating to taste perception. It

will also examine the extent of tracking of dietary habits throughout childhood and

adolescence to adulthood. Together this data will inform public health strategies to

encourage the early adoption of a cancer-protective diet.

Date proposal received: 
Wednesday, 29 November, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Wednesday, 29 November, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B434 - Genetic and environmental influences on the link between mood and anxiety problems in childhood and substance use in adolescence - 24/11/2006

B number: 
B434
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Marcus Munafo (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Dr Marianne van den Bree (University of Cardiff, UK), Prof Nicholas Craddock (University of Cardiff, UK)
Title of project: 
Genetic and environmental influences on the link between mood and anxiety problems in childhood and substance use in adolescence
Proposal summary: 

Mood and anxiety problems may increase risk of development of alcohol abuse. It is unclear to what extent genetic or environmental risk factors contribute to this relationship. This project will examine the relations between childhood mood and anxiety problems and adolescent alcohol involvement using already existing data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). This study includes a wealth of psychological, sociological and genetic data from around 15,000 mothers and their children (who have been followed from birth to 14 years). Analyses will take into account genotypic information (e.g., serotonergic polymorphisms) as well as environmental factors such as the children's family environment.

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 24 November, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 24 November, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

B435 - Prenatal glucocorticoids hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA - axix activity and HPA-axis related disorders in children - 23/11/2006

B number: 
B435
Principal applicant name: 
G Meinlschmidt (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Prenatal glucocorticoids, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) - axix activity and HPA-axis related disorders in children
Proposal summary: 

No outline received

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 23 November, 2006
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 23 November, 2006
Keywords: 
Primary keyword: 

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