Proposal summaries

These are research proposals that have been approved by the ALSPAC exec. The titles include a B number which identifies the proposal and the date on which the proposals received ALSPAC exec approval.

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B160 - Does proximity to high voltage power lines influence child development and morbidity in the local population A test of the corona ion hypothesis - 01/12/2002

B number: 
B160
Principal applicant name: 
Prof John Henderson (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Does proximity to high voltage power lines influence child development and morbidity in the local population? A test of the corona ion hypothesis.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Environmental Exposure, Respiratory, Atopy, Development
Primary keyword: 

B91 - Abnormal eye growth and myopia - a study of the genetic and environmental risk factors - 01/12/2002

B number: 
B91
Principal applicant name: 
Miss Cathy E M Williams (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Abnormal eye growth and myopia - a study of the genetic and environmental risk factors.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Keywords: 
Autism, Genetics, Motor Co-ordination, Neurology, Vision, Environmental Exposure
Primary keyword: 

B90 - The risk factors and natural history of allergic and obstructive airway disease and associated atopic problems in children teenagers and adults - 01/12/2002

B number: 
B90
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Graham C Roberts (University of Southampton, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
The risk factors and natural history of allergic and obstructive airway disease and associated atopic problems in children, teenagers and adults.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Respiratory, Atopy
Primary keyword: 

B89 - How do genes modify the prenatal effects of tobacco smoke paracetamol and antioxidant exposures on childhood respiratory outcomes - 01/12/2002

B number: 
B89
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Seif Shaheen (King's College London, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Prof Marcus Pembrey (UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK), Prof John Henderson (University of Bristol, UK), Prof John Holloway (University of Southampton, UK)
Title of project: 
How do genes modify the prenatal effects of tobacco smoke, paracetamol and antioxidant exposures on childhood respiratory outcomes?
Proposal summary: 

The extent to which oxidant exposures such as tobacco smoke and paracetamol are detrimental, and antioxidants are

beneficial, to lung health, will depend partly on variation in genes involved in antioxidant defences and xenobiotic

metabolism and detoxification. However, few epidemiological studies have explored interactions between such genes

and oxidant/antioxidant exposures on childhood respiratory outcomes.

We will study how relevant gene polymorphisms in the mother and child modify effects of prenatal and postnatal

exposure to tobacco smoke, paracetamol and antioxidants on childhood lung function, wheezing, asthma and

bronchial hyper-responsiveness, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large population-based

birth cohort, which has collected DNA from mothers as well as from children.

Confirmation of interactions between oxidant/antioxidant exposures and gene variants which influence antioxidant

function and xenobiotic toxicity would provide stronger evidence that the effects of the environmental risk factors are

causal, and may provide insights into mechanisms. By increasing our understanding of the early life influences on lung

development we hope to devise new strategies aimed at the primary prevention of lung disease in children and the

optimisation of their respiratory health.

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 December, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Genetics, Respiratory, Atopy, Drugs, Smoking, Genes
Primary keyword: 

B81 - Adaptive modelling of human infant growth - 01/11/2002

B number: 
B81
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Jonathan Wells (University College London, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Adaptive modelling of human infant growth.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Friday, 1 November, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Friday, 1 November, 2002
Keywords: 
Endocrine, Growth, Obesity, Weight
Primary keyword: 

B78 - The long-term consequences of exposure to dioxin dioxin-like PCBs on the childs neurodevelopment - and their interaction with susceptible genotype a genetic approach - 01/10/2002

B number: 
B78
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Jean Golding (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
The long-term consequences of exposure to dioxin & dioxin-like PCBs on the child's neurodevelopment - and their interaction with susceptible genotype: a genetic approach.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Keywords: 
Autism, Environmental Exposure, Genetics, Motor Co-ordination, Neurology, Pregnancy, Vision
Primary keyword: 

B77 - Caffeine consumption and its impact on mood cognition and behaviour in children - 01/10/2002

B number: 
B77
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Peter Rogers (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Caffeine consumption and its impact on mood, cognition and behaviour in children.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Keywords: 
Autism, Diet, Motor Co-ordination, Neurology, Vision, Cognition, Eating disorders
Primary keyword: 

B290 - Long and short term health impact of parent-child relationships - 01/10/2002

B number: 
B290
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Sarah Stewart-Brown (University of Warwick, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Long and short term health impact of parent-child relationships.
Proposal summary: 

1) To test the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-child relationship predicts subsequent physical health independently of socio-economic factors such as social class, maternal education, household income, maternal age and biological factors such as parental smoking and breast feeding.

2) To estimate the role of potential mediators such as parental mental health, the quality of the parent-parent relationship, the child's temperament and child mental health in the possible causal pathways between parent-child relationship quality and subsequent health.

To test the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-child relationship predicts indicators of subsequent physical health such as waist circumference relative to BMI (internal adipose tissue) and blood pressure.

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Keywords: 
Parenting
Primary keyword: 

B79 - Investigating the heritability and epidemiology of non-clinical psychotic phenomena in the general population - 01/10/2002

B number: 
B79
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Mary Zanarini (The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Centre, USA)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Investigating the heritability and epidemiology of non-clinical psychotic phenomena in the general population.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002
Keywords: 
Personality, PLIKS, Self-harm, Sleep, Psychosis
Primary keyword: 

B76 - MRC Senior Non-Clinical Research Fellowship - 01/09/2002

B number: 
B76
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Rania Hamvas (MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
MRC Senior (Non-Clinical) Research Fellowship.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 September, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 September, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Genetics, Respiratory, Atopy
Primary keyword: 

B75 - Understanding the relationship between diet and dental erosion in a cohort of 12 year olds - 01/09/2002

B number: 
B75
Principal applicant name: 
A Williams (Not used 0, Not used 0)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Understanding the relationship between diet and dental erosion in a cohort of 12 year olds.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Sunday, 1 September, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Sunday, 1 September, 2002
Keywords: 
Diet, Eating disorders, Teeth
Primary keyword: 

B74 - Effects of lifestyle on bone mass acquisition in early puberty - 01/08/2002

B number: 
B74
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Jon Tobias (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Effects of lifestyle on bone mass acquisition in early puberty.
Proposal summary: 

We aim to investigate whether lifestyle in early puberty influences bone mass acquisition during this period, and as a result likely to effect the risk of developing osteoporosis in later life. This will be addressed by analysing whether diet, exercise or other factors as assessed at age 10.5 years are associated with gain in bone mass, as measured between the ages of 9.5 and 11.5 years in the ALSPAC cohort.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Keywords: 
Bones, Diet, Genetics, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Eating disorders, Puberty
Primary keyword: 

B73 - Childrens attitudes and experiences of race racism inter-relationships - 01/08/2002

B number: 
B73
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Alan Emond (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Dr Amy Hawkins (University of Bristol, UK)
Title of project: 
Children's attitudes and experiences of race, racism & inter-relationships.
Proposal summary: 

Background

Statistics suggest that race and experiences of racial discrimination have an important impact upon almost every aspect of children's lives, affecting their emotional, social and cultural well-being, as well as physical and mental health. These issues also have an impact upon both academic attainment and employment prospects, and in turn with the transition into adulthood (Greater London Authority, 2007).

In England and Wales, health inequalities attributable to ethnicity and social deprivation are reflected in epidemiological data and infant mortality statistics (Davey-Smith et al, 2000; Office for National Statistics; Hessol et al, 2005). One study has shown a higher rate of admission to paediatric intensive care for children from certain ethnic minority backgrounds (most notably South Asian children, with a 36% higher admission rate compared with Caucasian children) (Parslow et al, 2009).

However, there are limited published data exploring childrens' racial attitudes and experiences, particularly from the UK. One recent study has suggested that implicit maternal beliefs regarding race are a significant predictor of a child's racial attitudes (Castelli et al, 2009). Several studies have suggested that the degree of inter-racial mixing decreases with advancing age (Virdee et al, 1999; Pitts et al, 2000).

Research from the United States has suggested that children from ethnically homogenous schools tend to evaluate ethnic minority peers more critically and are less likely to form friendships with these children than with other children of a similar racial background (McGlothlin et al, 2006).

Aim:

To assess the attitudes and experiences of race and inter-racial relationships amongst children aged 12 years.

Objectives:

  1. To analyse the attitudes of young people towards race and racism.
  2. To assess the nature of inter-racial relationships amongst children at school and in the community.
  3. To ascertain children's experiences of racial bullying and discrimination.
  4. To analyse the ways in which experiences of inter-racial relationships differ according to ethnicity, gender and social class.
  5. To explore the impact of race and inter-racial relationships upon a child's social, cultural and emotional well-being.

Methods

A written questionnaire survey of approximately 10,000 ALSPAC children aged 12 years was used to assess attitudes to race and racism. In consultation with the funders (NSPCC) and in collaboration with Prof Tariq Modood, a series of questions were developed on racial attitudes, drawing on questions used in previous surveys of young people in the UK. Predominantly closed questions were used to assess responses, and the questions were included in the 'All around me' questionnaire completed by 12 year olds in 2003-5.

These data have yet to be analysed, so initial analysis will be univariate and descriptive. Associations will be explored between racial identity, gender, friendship groups, bullying and school context.

Exposure and outcome variables

The exposure measured in this study is the questionnaire answers relating to racial attitudes and experiences.

The primary outcome variable is the experience of bulling and racism. Secondary outcome variables are self-esteem, impact upon personal identity and self-categorisation of ethnicity, mental health problems including anxiety and depression, physical health, friendships, academic achievement and employment prospects.

Confounding factors

Confounding factors are likely to include maternal and paternal age, attitudes of parents or guardians, sibling attitudes and behaviour, social class, poverty, disability, ethnicity, religion, nature of residence in the UK (whether temporary or permanent), gender, schooling (including whether private, grammar or state school), and ethnic composition of the school the child attends and local community in which they live.

References

Greater London Authority. The State of London's Children Report. 2007. Accessed at http://www.legacy.london.gov.uk/mayor/children/docs/solc-main-2007.rtf. Last accessed 22/02/11.

Davey-Smith G, Chaturvedi N, Harding S et al. Ethnic inequalities in health: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Critical Public Health. 2000; 10: 375-408.

Office for National Statistics. Infant mortality by ethnic group, England and Wales. Series DH3 no.36. London: Office for National Statistics, 2005. Accessed from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vlnk=15111&Pos=1&ColRa...

Last accessed 22/02/11.

Hessol NA, Fuentes-Afflick E. Ethnic differences in neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 44-51.

Parslow RC, Tasker RC, Draper ES et al. Epidemiology of critically ill children in England and Wales: incidence, mortality, deprivation and ethnicity. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009; 94: 210-15.

Castelli L, Zogmaister C and Tomelleri. The transmission of racial attitudes within the family. Developmental Psychology. 2009; 42 (2): 586-591.

Virdee S, Modood T, Newburn T et al. Understanding racial harassment in schools. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. University of Strathclyde and Bristol. 1999. Accessed at http://www.regard.ac.uk.

Pitts J, Marlow A, Porteous D et al. Inter-group and inter-racial violence and the victimisation of school students in a London neighbourhood. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, Violence Research Programme. University of Luton. 2000. Accessed at http://www.regard.ac.uk.

McGlothlin H, Killen M. Intergroup attitudes of European American children attending ethnically homogenous schools. Child Development. 2006; 77 (5): 1375-86.

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Keywords: 
Social Science, Stress, Social Conditions
Primary keyword: 

B72 - Middle childhood risk protective factors for the onset of risky sexual behaviours in adolescence - 01/08/2002

B number: 
B72
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Jacquelynne Eccles (University of Michigan, USA)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Middle childhood risk & protective factors for the onset of risky sexual behaviours in adolescence.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Thursday, 1 August, 2002
Keywords: 
Puberty, Sexual Behaviour
Primary keyword: 

B289 - Prevalence of borderline personality disorder in children - 01/07/2002

B number: 
B289
Principal applicant name: 
Ms Luisa Zuccolo (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Prevalence of borderline personality disorder in children.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Keywords: 
Personality
Primary keyword: 

B71 - Collagen genes and urinary continence - 01/07/2002

B number: 
B71
Principal applicant name: 
Dr Paul Abrams (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Collagen genes and urinary continence.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Keywords: 
Genetics, Incontinence, Genes
Primary keyword: 

B70 - Identification of children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder - 01/07/2002

B number: 
B70
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Alan Emond (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Identification of children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder.
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Keywords: 
Autism, Personality, PLIKS, Self-harm, Sleep
Primary keyword: 

B68 - Is the prevalence of peanut allergy increasing - 01/07/2002

B number: 
B68
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Gideon Lack (MRC Human Nutrition Research, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Is the prevalence of peanut allergy increasing?
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Respiratory, Atopy
Primary keyword: 

B67 - Do invasive antenatal procedures affect the respiratory health of children - 01/07/2002

B number: 
B67
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Seif Shaheen (Queen Mary, University of London, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Title of project: 
Do invasive antenatal procedures affect the respiratory health of children?
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Monday, 1 July, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Respiratory, Atopy
Primary keyword: 

B66 - Fellowship no further details on file - 01/06/2002

B number: 
B66
Principal applicant name: 
Prof Matthias Egger (University of Bristol, UK)
Co-applicants: 
Prof Claudia Kuenhi (Universitat Bern, Europe)
Title of project: 
Fellowship (no further details on file).
Proposal summary: 

(No outline received).

Date proposal received: 
Saturday, 1 June, 2002
Date proposal approved: 
Saturday, 1 June, 2002
Keywords: 
Allergies, Respiratory, Atopy
Primary keyword: 

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